What is it concrete to explain?

Concrete, under construction, structural material consisting of a hard and chemically inert particulate substance, known as aggregate (usually sand and gravel), which is joined by cement and water. This mixture, called portland cement, has remained the dominant cementing agent used in the production of concrete.

What is it concrete to explain?

Concrete, under construction, structural material consisting of a hard and chemically inert particulate substance, known as aggregate (usually sand and gravel), which is joined by cement and water. This mixture, called portland cement, has remained the dominant cementing agent used in the production of concrete. When the aggregate is mixed with dry Portland cement and water, the mixture forms a fluid slurry that is easily poured and shaped into shape. Cement reacts with water through a process called concrete hydration that hardens for several hours to form a hard matrix that binds materials together into a durable stone-like material that has many uses.

This time it allows concrete not only to be molded into shapes, but also to preform a variety of mechanized processes. The hydration process is exothermic, which means that ambient temperature plays an important role in the time it takes for concrete to set. Additives (such as pozzolans or superplasticizers) are often included in the blend to improve the physical properties of the wet mix, delay or accelerate curing time, or change the finished material. Most of the concrete is poured with reinforcing materials (such as reinforcing bars) embedded to provide tensile strength, resulting in reinforced concrete.

In the past, lime-based cement binders, such as lime putty, were often used, but sometimes with other hydraulic (water resistant) cements such as calcium aluminate cement or Portland cement to form Portland cement concrete (named for its visual resemblance to Portland stone). There are many other types of non-cementitious concrete with other methods for joining aggregates, including asphalt concrete with a bituminous binder, which is often used for road surfaces, and polymer concretes that use polymers as a binder. While concrete is itself a building material, mortar is a bonding agent that normally holds bricks, tiles and other masonry units together. The Mayan concrete in the ruins of Uxmal is mentioned in John L.

The roof is flat and had been covered with cement. The floors were concrete, in some places hard, but, due to prolonged exposure, they were broken and now crumbled underfoot. But throughout the wall it was solid, and consisted of large stones embedded in mortar, almost as hard as rock. Small-scale production of concrete-like materials pioneered the Nabataean merchants, who occupied and controlled a number of oases and developed a small empire in the southern regions of Syria and northern Jordan from the 4th century to.

C. They discovered the advantages of hydraulic lime, with some self-cementing properties, around 700 BC. They built kilns to supply mortar for the construction of rubble masonry houses, concrete floors and waterproof underground cisterns. They kept the cisterns secret, as they allowed the Nabataeans to thrive in the desert.

Some of these structures survive to this day. Structures that use Portland cement concrete usually include steel reinforcement because this type of concrete can be formulated with a high compressive strength, but it always has a lower tensile strength. Therefore, it is generally reinforced with materials that are strong in tension, typically steel reinforcing bars. Fine and coarse aggregates make up most of a concrete mix.

Sand, natural gravel and crushed stone are mainly used for this purpose. Recycled aggregates (from construction, demolition and excavation waste) are increasingly used as partial replacements for natural aggregates, while various manufactured aggregates are also allowed, including air-cooled blast furnace slag and bottom ash. Concrete production is the process of mixing the various ingredients: water, aggregate, cement and any additives to produce concrete. Once the ingredients are mixed, workers must put the concrete in place before it hardens.

In modern use, most of the production of concrete is carried out in a large type of industrial facility called a concrete plant or, often, batch plant. In general use, concrete plants come in two main types, premix plants and central mix plants. A pre-mixed plant mixes all ingredients except water, while a central mixing plant mixes all ingredients, including water. A central mixing plant offers more precise control of concrete quality through better measurements of the amount of water added, but should be placed closer to the job site where the concrete will be used, as hydration begins at the plant.

A concrete plant consists of large storage hoppers for various reactive ingredients such as cement, storage of bulk ingredients such as aggregates and water, mechanisms for the addition of various additives and amendments, machinery for accurately weighing, moving and mixing some or all of those ingredients, and facilities for dispensing mixed concrete, often to a concrete mixer truck. Modern concrete is usually prepared as a viscous fluid, so that it can be poured into forms, which are containers erected in the field to give concrete the desired shape. Concrete formwork can be prepared in several ways, such as sliding forming and steel plate construction. Alternatively, concrete can be mixed into dry, non-fluid forms, and used in factories to manufacture precast concrete products.

An engineer decides the design mixing ratios after analyzing the properties of the specific ingredients being used. Instead of using a 'nominal mixture' of 1 part cement, 2 parts sand and 4 parts aggregate (the second example above), a civil engineer will custom design a concrete mix to exactly meet site requirements and conditions, fixing the proportions of the materials and often designing a package of additives to adjust the properties or increase the performance envelope of the mixture. Design mix concrete can have very wide specifications that cannot be met with more basic nominal mixtures, but the involvement of the engineer often increases the cost of concrete mix. Proper curing of concrete leads to higher strength and lower permeability and prevents cracking when the surface dries prematurely.

Care should also be taken to avoid freezing or overheating due to exothermic setting of cement. Improper curing can cause fouling, reduced strength, poor abrasion resistance and cracking. The terms asphalt (or asphalt) concrete, bituminous asphalt concrete and bituminous mixture are typically used only in engineering and construction documents, which define concrete as any composite material composed of mineral aggregate bonded with a binder. The abbreviation, AC, is sometimes used for asphalt concrete, but may also denote asphalt or asphalt cement content, referring to the liquid asphalt portion of the composite material.

Polymer concretes are mixtures of aggregates and any of the various polymers and can be reinforced. Cement is more expensive than lime-based cements, but polymer concretes have advantages; they have significant tensile strength even without reinforcement and are largely impermeable to water. Polymer concretes are often used for the repair and construction of other applications, such as drains. Options for non-combustible construction include floors, ceilings and roofs made of cast-in-place and hollow-core precast concrete.

For walls, concrete masonry technology and concrete insulating forms (ICF) are additional options. ICFs are hollow blocks or panels made of fireproof insulating foam that are stacked to form the shape of the walls of a building and then filled with reinforced concrete to create the structure. Another approach to mass concrete structures that minimizes the thermal by-product of cement is the use of roller-compacted concrete, which uses a dry mix that has a much lower cooling requirement than conventional wet laying. It is deposited in thick layers as a semi-dry material, then roller compacted into a dense, strong mass.

Prestressed concrete is a form of reinforced concrete that generates compressive stresses during construction to oppose tensile stresses experienced in use. This can greatly reduce the weight of beams or slabs, by better distributing stresses in the structure to make optimal use of reinforcement. For example, a horizontal beam tends to sag. The prestressed reinforcement along the bottom of the beam counteracts it.

In prestressed concrete, prestressing is achieved through the use of steel or polymer tendons or bars that are subjected to a tensile force before casting, or for post-tensioned concrete, after casting. Over 89,000 km (55,000 miles) of roads in the United States are paved with this material. Reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete and precast concrete are the most widely used types of functional concrete extensions today. For more information, see Brutalist Architecture.

The path to circularity goes beyond concrete technology itself, depending on multilateral advances in the cement industry, research and development of alternative materials, building design and management, and demolition, as well as the conscious use of spaces in urban areas to reduce consumption. Concrete is a building material composed of cement, fine aggregates (sand) and coarse aggregates mixed with water that hardens over time. Portland cement is the type of cement commonly used for the production of concrete. Concrete technology deals with the study of concrete properties and its practical applications.

In its simplest form, concrete is a mixture of paste and aggregates, or rocks. The paste, composed of portland cement and water, covers the surface of fine (small) and coarse (larger) aggregates. Through a chemical reaction called hydration, the paste hardens and gains strength to form the rock mass known as concrete. Concrete is a composite material, consisting mainly of Portland cement, water and aggregates (gravel, sand or rock).

When these materials are mixed together, they form a workable paste that then gradually hardens over time. Design mixed concretes are those for which the mixing ratios are finalized based on several laboratory tests on cylinder or cube to determine their compressive strength. Based on variations in materials and purposes, concrete can be classified into three basic categories:. Workability can be measured by the concrete slump test, a simple measure of the plasticity of a new batch of concrete following ASTM C 143 or EN 12350-2 test standards.

Since carbon dioxide is released in two ways during cement production, it follows that there are two ways to make concrete more environmentally friendly. This is due to variations in several specific parameters; for example, modifications to the concrete mix make each construction case unique. The polymer concrete assembly can facilitate the reduction of the volume of voids within the mixture. The solution is to put the reinforced concrete permanently in compression by prestressing it (also called prestressing).

The world record for the largest concrete pouring in a single project is the Three Gorges Dam in Hubei Province, China, by Three Gorges Corporation. Another environmental drawback of concrete comes from its use of aggregates, which must be extracted, often from environmentally sensitive areas such as river valleys. Although sometimes it receives bad press, because many people associate it with the brutal urban architecture of the mid-twentieth century, concrete is the great unknown hero of the modern material world. It can be carried out at any time, provided that the concrete remains plastic and the vibration instrument penetrates the concrete under its weight.

Giant and modern segmental bridges, for example, are often quickly and economically assembled from identical concrete sections that have been prefabricated in a factory and shipped to their final location. An early example at the Hoover Dam used a network of pipes between vertical concrete placements to circulate cooling water during the curing process to prevent harmful overheating. Below is a group of articles that will be useful when it comes to understanding more about concrete and cement. These concretes can reach their 28-day compressive strength in an amount of 10 days, and therefore the crushing strength of this structure is 25% higher compared to standard concrete types.

Efficiency in concrete construction is being improved through the adoption of hybrid solutions and innovations in formwork such as self-climbing formwork. . .

Riley Ryan
Riley Ryan

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